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    Wednesday, October 21, 2015

    Kiratatikta powder in fever

    Kiratatikta powder in fever





    Fever, also known as pyrexia, is a common medical symptom as well as a sign that indicates an increase in internal body temperature to levels above normal. Fever results from a temporary elevation in the body’s thermoregulatory set-point, which is usually set at a normal temperature of 37o C (98.6o F). Body temperature varies with time of the day, with lower levels in the morning and higher levels in the evening.

    Fever is present if oral temperature is over 37.2o C (98.96o F) in the morning and 37.7o C (99.86o F) in the evening, the corresponding rectal temperature (in anal canal) would be 0.4o C (0.72o F) higher. In addition to diurnal variations, body temperature is also influenced by age and gender (especially women in reproductive age group). Fever is not considered medically significant until body temperature is above 38° C (100.4° F). There are different accompanying symptoms of fever, which depend on its underlying causes. These include chills, rigors, malaise, arthralgia, anorexia, fatigue, dizziness, sweating, etc.

    Fever serves as one of the body’s natural defense against microbes. For that reason, low fevers should normally go untreated, unless accompanied by troubling symptoms. Fever is termed as low grade if it is between 38o–39° C (100.4o–102.2° F), moderate if it ranges within 39o–40°C (102.2o –104.0° F) and high grade if it is over 40° C (104.0° F). Depending upon the course of fever, fever can be:

    1. Continuous fever, if the temperature remains above normal throughout the day and does not fluctuate more than 1o C (1.8o F) in 24 hours; e.g. urinary tract infections, typhoid, lobar pneumonia.




    Traditional Herbal Remedies for Primary Health Care
    1. Intermittent fever, if fever touches base line for several hours
    of the day. If the spike occurs every day it is quotidian, spike every alternate day is called tertian and if this occurs after every third day then it is quartan intermittent fever; e.g. malaria.
    1. Remittent fever, if the temperature remains above normal throughout the day with fluctuations of more than 1 degree Celsius; e.g. infective endocarditis.
    2. Irregular fever if the pattern does not fit into any of the patterns indicated above.

    Causes of fever

    1. Infectious diseases: viral infections, malaria, influenza, sore throat, typhoid, pneumonia, measles, chickenpox, tuberculosis.
    2. Tissue injury.
    3. Cancers of liver, kidney, lymph nodes.
    4. Immuno-inflammatory diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis.
    5. Drugs and toxins.
    6. Exposure to high environmental temperature.
    7. Fever of unknown cause.

    The main risk of moderate to high fever is dehydration. Patients with fever need more fluids than usual. Body temperature greater than 41.67o C (107o F), can result in brain damage and possibly death. Whatever may be the cause, uncomplicated mild to moderate fever can be managed with a simple herbal preparation mentioned in Ayurvedic classics such as Kiratatikta.

    Kiratatikta [Swertia chirata (Roxb. ex Fleming)
    1. Karst]
    Kiratatikta powder consists of dried, matured pieces of whole plant of Swertia chirata (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst, an erect, annual, herbaceous plant. It is about 0.6-1.25 metres high, found in temperate Himalayas at an altitude of between 1200-3000 metres from Kashmir to Bhutan and Khasia Hills in Meghalaya. The plant is collected when it flowers during July to October and dried in the shade. The formulation is mentioned in classical Ayurvedic texts, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia and Ayurvedic Formulary of India for various types of fever.
    Composition

    The formulation is a powder made from dried, matured pieces of whole plant of Swertia chirata.

    English name
    Chiretta, Chirata, Brown chiretta, white chiretta
    Latin name
    Swertia chirata (Roxb. ex Fleming) H. Karst
    Family
    Gentianaceae
    Part used
    Whole plant

    A Swertia chirata plant. Dried Swertia chirata plants.

    Main chemical constituents1
    Xanthones, xanthone glycoside and mangiferine (flavonoid).

    Quality standards1

    Foreign matter
    Not more than 2%
    Total ash
    Not more than 6%
    Acid insoluble ash
    Not more than 1%
    Alcohol (60%) soluble extractive
    Not less than 10%
    Water-soluble extractive
    Not less than 10%








    Traditional Herbal Remedies for Primary Health Care
    Method of preparation

    Take dried whole plant of Kiratatikta and further dry it in the shade to remove moisture for easy powdering or making coarse powder for decoction.

      1. Grind the material in a grinder or pulverizer until fine powder or coarse powder is obtained.
      2. For obtaining the fine powder filter it through mesh size 85. Coarse powder is used as such for decoction, there is no need to filter it.
      3. The shelf life of the powder is four months but it can retain its potency if kept in an air-tight container and protected from direct sunlight and heat.

    Dosage form

    Dark-brownish bitter powder or warm, dark brownish bitter liquid.

    Therapeutic properties2
    Anti-pyretic, anti-malarial, anthelmintic, anti-leishminial, anti- inflammatory, anti-tubercular, cholagogue, hepatoprotective, anti- diabetic, laxative, stomachic, tonic.

    Dose and mode of administration

    The dose of Kiratatikta powder for adults is 1-3 grams and for children it is 250 mg to 500 mg, with water. The dose of decoction for adults is 25-30 ml and for children, it is 5 ml to 10 ml, to be taken twice a day after meals.

    Indications and uses

    Fevers of known and unknown causes.

    Precautions and safety aspects

    1. Although no toxic effects are reported with Kiratatikta, the
    patient taking oral hypoglycemic drugs should take the medicine under medical supervision as Kiratatikta may interact with oral hypoglycemic drugs potentiating its hypoglycaemic action.
    1. Medication with Kiratatikta should be stopped, if the intensity of
    fever does not decrease within a few hours and the symptoms aggravate. Chronic and severely feverish patients should consume Kiratatikta under medical supervision.
    1. Pregnant women should take this medication under medical supervision. However, it is safe for the baby if the nursing mother is taking this medication.
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    Item Reviewed: Kiratatikta powder in fever Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Holy Krishna
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